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Chapter

Cover A History of Policing in England and Wales from 1974: A
            Turbulent Journey

1974  

Sometimes a single picture portrays better than any detailed description or analysis the spirit of the times. The photograph on the front cover of the Police Review for the week ending 4 January 1974 is one. It is in grainy monochrome. It shows a single policeman standing in an urban street while snow is falling. As a ‘constable’ he held an office the origins of which went back to Norman times, and curiously, despite receiving a salary from the relevant police committee, as a Crown office holder he was not legally ‘employed’ by them. In 1974 it would almost inevitably have been a man, as ‘Women Police Constables’, then a specific designation, would rarely have performed such general duties despite possessing full powers as a constable. He is also white, there being then very few serving visible minority ethnic officers. He is on point duty, a task which had been widespread just a few years before but which by 1974 was slowly diminishing with the increased use of traffic lights and other traffic management features. It entailed an officer standing at a fixed point on a road junction for many hours directing traffic using well understood hand signals. He was essentially a human set of traffic lights. By the standards of the day he is well-enough accoutred for the weather, wearing a heavy greatcoat buttoned to the chin, a ridged coxcomb helmet, made of cork, chin strap down, waterproof leggings, and white cuffs and gloves, the latter being a contemporary attempt at enhancing visibility. He carries no obvious protection or armament. He looks resigned and rather uncomfortable as a light dusting of snow, like icing sugar on top of a Christmas pudding, settles on his helmet and shoulders. There are no cars or other vehicles in shot, a consequence possibly of the camera angle or because in January 1974 Britain was not only in the grip of a cold, depressing winter but also of a destabilizing fuel crisis.

Chapter

Cover A History of Policing in England and Wales from 1974: A
            Turbulent Journey

‘A Bloody Good Hiding’: 1985  

By 1985 the country had travelled far on its journey of profound economic, social, and political change under Mrs Thatcher. Old industries were dying or dead; individual and collective entrepreneurialism was valued as never before, even if some of it looked like old-fashioned greed and get-rich-quick. The public services themselves, especially health, education, local government, and housing, bastions of a service-first ethos, found themselves subject to reorganization and cultural change which either practically eliminated the government’s direct provision of the service, as with housing, or subjected it to the supposed rigours of private sector techniques. After the depths of the 1970s change was necessary, but the process was unpredictable and it produced social, economic, and political losers as well as winners. The police found themselves at the fulcrum of the inevitable tensions generated by such fundamental change. The years since 1974 had been tough, but in 1985 it was about to get a lot tougher.

Chapter

Cover Blackstone’s Senior Investigating Officers’ Handbook

Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Vulnerable Persons  

This chapter examines the abuse and exploitation of children and vulnerable persons. Exploitation usually occurs when a person provides something to the greater benefit and advantage of another. Fraud, coercion, and undue control or threats or acts of violence can be used as means of gaining compliance. One example is where a criminal gang coerces a child into joining their group to sexually abuse them or for others to do so; or to use them to distribute illegal substances or weapons such as drugs, knives, and firearms. Parents can also exploit their own children by trafficking them or advertising them on ‘Adult Services Websites’ (ASWs) or dating websites. Some victims (including vulnerable adults) are also trafficked into or within countries for the purpose of sexual exploitation, servitude, or modern slavery and become involuntarily linked to criminality and criminal gang networks. The chapter then looks at Operation Hydrant, as well as the emergence of online child sexual abuse.

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators' Manual 2024

Actus Reus (Criminal Conduct)  

Paul Connor, Glenn Hutton, David Johnston, Andy Cox, Elliot Gold, and Neil Cross

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Manual Volume 1: Crime 2024

Actus Reus (Criminal Conduct)  

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators Manual 2023

Actus Reus (Criminal Conduct)  

Paul Connor

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators' Manual 2024

Aggravated Burglary  

Paul Connor, Glenn Hutton, David Johnston, Andy Cox, Elliot Gold, and Neil Cross

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators Manual 2023

Aggravated Burglary  

Paul Connor

Chapter

Cover Blackstone’s Police Operational Handbook

Alcohol and Licensing  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter explores offences relating to alcohol and licensing. The sale and supply of alcohol is regulated by the Licensing Act 2003, which creates several offences relating to children, young people, alcohol, drunkenness, and disorderly conduct. The legislation also includes a variety of offences relating to alcohol and powers to enter/close licensed premises/clubs and allows test purchases. The chapter details the alcohol restriction dedicated to protecting the order of public spaces. Additionally, the Confiscation of Alcohol (Young Persons) Act 1997 allows the police to confiscate alcohol from people under 18 years in certain public places, while the Policing and Crime Act 2009 makes it an offence for a person under 18 to persistently possess alcohol in a public place.

Chapter

Cover Blackstone’s Handbook for Policing Students

Alcohol, Drugs, and Substance Use  

This chapter covers the application of the law surrounding incidents that involve alcohol, drugs, and substance use. It cites that the health and safety of all persons present must be considered due to the potential for injury. Moreover, the Police Constable Degree Apprenticeship (PCDA), the Degree Holder Entry Programme (DHEP), and pre-join programmes often also provide an introduction to the wider issues surrounding alcohol and other forms of drug and substance use. The chapter mentions how alcohol is also a problem for a significant minority of young people. Meanwhile, drug legislation has been carefully worded so that it would prosecute users and people involved in the drug supply.

Chapter

Cover Card and English on Police Law

Animal Welfare and Protection  

This chapter explores the Animal Welfare Act 2006 (AWA 2006), which seeks to prevent animal cruelty and promote animal welfare. It explains that AWA 2006 is concerned with a person responsible for or in charge of an animal on a permanent or a temporary basis. It also emphasizes that a person who owns an animal is always regarded as being a person who is responsible for that animal. The chapter outlines offences under s 4(1) of AWA 2006, which includes an act or failure to act that causes an animal to suffer or ownership of a protected animal. It defines a protected animal as those that are commonly domesticated in the British Islands and are not living in a wild state.

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators' Workbook 2024

Answers Section  

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators Workbook 2023

Answers Section  

Paul Connor

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Counter-Terrorism Handbook

Arrest and Detention  

This chapter examines specific provisions for the arrest and detention of terrorist suspects, which exist to ensure the particular risks associated with those persons can be dealt with appropriately. It highlights Section 41 of and Schedule 8 to the Terrorism Act 2000 (TACT) which contains provisions for the arrest and detention of suspected terrorists. It also cites the Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984 Code of Practice H that covers the detention, treatment, and questioning by police officers of persons arrested under section 41 of TACT. The chapter explains that Section 41 of TACT creates a power to arrest those suspected to be terrorists, eliminating the need to satisfy the usual necessity test, although a police officer must have reasonable suspicion that the person is a terrorist. It emphasizes that a constable may arrest without a warrant a person whom he reasonably suspects to be a terrorist.

Chapter

Cover PACE

Arrest: Part III  

This chapter highlights Part III of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984, which outlines powers and duties in relation to arrest. It discusses arrest without warrant by constables and other persons, information to be given on arrest, and powers and procedures with respect to persons arrested elsewhere than at a police station. It also reviews provisions on the bail of persons arrested elsewhere than at a police station and the arrest of persons at police stations, attending voluntarily or by arrest for further offence. The chapter explores the power and duty of the search of persons and search and entry of premises upon arrest at a place other than a police station. It mentions the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 (SOCPA), which splits the general power of arrest into two sections: arrests effected by constables and arrests effected by other persons.

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators Manual 2023

Assault  

Paul Connor

Chapter

Cover Blackstone’s Police Operational Handbook

Assaults and Violence  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter focuses on how police can address assaults and violence. It considers the offences addressed in the Criminal Justice Act 1988, the Child Abduction Act 1984, and the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. Assault typically divides between grievous bodily harm, assault with intent to resist arrest, and common assault battery. Moreover, the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 includes provisions on the offence of threats to kill, which include the intent to cause fear alongside the threat to kill without lawful excuse. Officers should be familiar with the Child Abduction Act 1984 to deal with cases of violent domestic incidents, sexual offences, or where people are taken against their will.

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators' Manual 2024

The Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004  

Paul Connor, Glenn Hutton, David Johnston, Andy Cox, Elliot Gold, and Neil Cross

Chapter

Cover Blackstone's Police Investigators Manual 2023

The Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004  

Paul Connor

Chapter

Cover Blackstone’s Handbook for Policing Students

Attempts, Conspiracy, and Encouraging or Assisting Crime  

This chapter considers the legislation designed to handle incidents of suspects assisting crime or conspiracy. It cites that offenders will be prosecuted for attempting to commit the full offence or for conspiracy despite stopping short of committing indictable offences. Moreover, accomplices who encourage or assist in the enactment of a crime from a distance are also considered for prosecution. The rationale for creating the inchoate offences of conspiracy, attempts, and incitement is based on the notion that the perpetrator is no less dangerous or culpable than a person who might commit the full or substantive offence. The chapter mentions the possible defences against a claim of encouraging or assisting offences.