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Alcohol and Licensing  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter explores offences relating to alcohol and licensing. The sale and supply of alcohol is regulated by the Licensing Act 2003, which creates several offences relating to children, young people, alcohol, drunkenness, and disorderly conduct. The legislation also includes a variety of offences relating to alcohol and powers to enter/close licensed premises/clubs and allows test purchases. The chapter details the alcohol restriction dedicated to protecting the order of public spaces. Additionally, the Confiscation of Alcohol (Young Persons) Act 1997 allows the police to confiscate alcohol from people under 18 years in certain public places, while the Policing and Crime Act 2009 makes it an offence for a person under 18 to persistently possess alcohol in a public place.

Chapter

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Assaults and Violence  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter focuses on how police can address assaults and violence. It considers the offences addressed in the Criminal Justice Act 1988, the Child Abduction Act 1984, and the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. Assault typically divides between grievous bodily harm, assault with intent to resist arrest, and common assault battery. Moreover, the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 includes provisions on the offence of threats to kill, which include the intent to cause fear alongside the threat to kill without lawful excuse. Officers should be familiar with the Child Abduction Act 1984 to deal with cases of violent domestic incidents, sexual offences, or where people are taken against their will.

Book

Cover Blackstone’s Police Operational Handbook
This book is designed for police officers while out on patrol. Covering a wide range of common offences, it clearly explains and interprets the relevant legislation, providing offence definitions, points to prove, and practical considerations. It allows readers to make a quick, informed decision in a host of everyday policing situations. The sixteenth edition of has been updated to include all recent legislative developments and further changes to the law. Topics covered include police powers, assaults and violence, sexual offences, drugs, public disorder, and firearms. There is also coverage of road traffic issues. The book finishes with five appendices on topics such as human rights and traffic data.

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Controlled Drugs  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter tackles the provisions concerning controlled drugs. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 regulates certain drugs and designates which drugs are controlled by assigning them to certain categories. If the drug is a controlled drug, it will be unlawful, with exceptions, to import, export, produce, supply, or possess that drug. Moreover, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 clarifies the distinction between people who are lawfully allowed to possess controlled drugs and people who are unlawfully in possession of drugs. The chapter also discusses the offences of cultivating cannabis, possessing khat, and possessing or dealing with psychoactive substances. It notes that the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 provides for confiscation orders and creates the offence of money laundering.

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Crime: Dishonesty  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter discusses crimes that revolve around dishonesty. It notes how the Theft Act 1968 provides for the offence of theft and other connected offences, which ends with section 23 concerned with advertising rewards for the return of stolen or lost goods. Examples of dishonest crimes range between theft, robbery, blackmail, burglary, abstraction of electricity, handling stolen goods, fraud, and obtaining services dishonestly. The chapter explains that fraud offences include false representation, failing to disclose information, and abuse of position. It also mentions the provisions of the Theft Act 1968 concerning the offences of going equipped for any burglary or theft.

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Crime: General  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter explores general crimes. The chapter explains how the Criminal Attempts Act 1981 creates an offence of ‘attempting’ to commit certain crimes. It explains the imperative to prove intent (mens rea) for attempt offences, as well as other offences requiring intent. The mens rea can be proved through various sources of information, such as a defendant's admissions, inference from the offence's circumstances, witness evidence, and actions of the defendant. The chapter notes that the offence of criminal damage is designed to protect people's property from the unlawful actions of others. It also considers the offences concerning human trafficking, forced marriage, computer misuse, neglect by a care worker, and vehicle interference and tampering with motor vehicles.

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Firearms, Fireworks, and Weapons  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter looks at offences concerning firearms, fireworks, and weapons. The Firearms Act 1968 provides various offences connected with firearms, air weapons, shotguns, and associated ammunition. The chapter then considers a raft of legislation which has been put in place to try and curb possession of firearms by criminals. It also discusses the provisions on age restrictions, police powers to stop and search for firearms and possessing firearms or imitation firearms in a public place. On the other hand, Section 28 of the Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006 makes it an offence to use another person to look after, hide, or transport a dangerous weapon.

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General: Patrol  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter covers general offences in correlation with patrol. It explains that the Police Reform Act 2002 allows for the designation of a person as a community support officer (CSO) or a community support volunteer (CSV). Meanwhile, the Mental Health Act 1983 provides for police powers to act in respect of people experiencing a mental health crisis to ensure their care and safety. The chapter also discusses the legislation relating to immigration, which includes the aspects of illegal entry into the UK, illegal entry by deception, and assisting an illegal immigrant. It considers the offences of wasting police time, supplying tobacco, unmanned aircraft, and shining a laser beam towards a vehicle.

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Introduction  

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the power and procedures of police operations. It details the sections and articles within the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE). If a police officer uses force, the action must be justified and reasonable and based on lawful authority since it would become a notion of assault and be deemed unlawful. Statute, common law, and human rights set out the circumstances in which the use of force will be lawful, however, each case will have its peculiar facts. The chapter explores police operations that range between stop and search, arrest, seizure powers, and search warrants.

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Public Disorder/Nuisance  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter covers offences and police operations revolving around public disorder or nuisance. It notes that Penalty Notices for Disorder (PNDs) were established by section 2 of the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001. Meanwhile, the provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 1967 and Licensing Act 1872 deal with offences relating to drunkenness in public places, while the Public Order Act 1986 provides the statutory offences of riot and violent disorder. The chapter then elaborates on the common law notion of ‘breach of the peace’ which involves various powers to prevent a breach of the peace in both public and private places. It also details the provisions addressing riots, affray, international harassment, and racial, religious, or sexual orientation hatred offences.

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Road Traffic  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter discusses offences around road traffic. It starts with the acknowledgement that the term ‘road’ has multiple meanings within various legislations. The Road Traffic Act 1988 provides various powers to stop vehicles and offences of drivers neglecting or refusing to comply with traffic directions given by a police constable. The chapter then looks at the consequences, offences, and defences of failing to comply with traffic signs, dangerous driving, and road traffic collision. It details the Traffic Fixed Penalty Notices (TFPNs) and procedures with regard to road traffic offences under the sections of the Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988.

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Sexual Offences and Assaults  

Arvind Panagariya

This chapter looks into the crimes of rape, sexual offences, and assault as consolidated by the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The severity of sexual offences depends on whether the individual was assaulted by penetration or touching and whether the individual was over or under 13 or 16 years old. Several sections of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 address the offences of voyeurism, indecent exposure, and public decency. The chapter cites the offence of administering a substance against another person under the intent of committing a sexual offence. Meanwhile, the first section of the Street Offences Act 1959 disallows people over 18 to persistently loiter or solicit in a street or public place for prostitution.