- Clive Harfield
- and Karen Harfield
This chapter talks about covert investigation subject to RIPA2000, IPA2016, and PA97, which must be authorized before the use of covert methods commences. It considers the role of the authorizing officer as the most important role within the overall management and governance of lawful covert investigation. It also describes the authorizing officer, who assesses and documents the statutory determinations of proportionality and necessity. The chapter covers governance architecture, which is multi-faceted, has oversight in the form of the Investigatory Powers Commissioner, and is an independent Investigatory Powers Tribunal adjudicating allegations of misuse. It highlights the general and generic issues concerning authorization as a mechanism.