Examining all the issues needed to consider when deploying investigative tools under the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIPA) and the Investigatory Powers Act 2016, this book provides a detailed guide to this important, complex, and sometimes controversial area of the law. It sets the context for the moral management of covert investigations, and the statutory principles underpinning such interventions. Authorization and governance frameworks are discussed, with emphasis on issues facing authorizing officers, as well as a focus on practical management issues from strategic and operational perspectives. Part 2 concentrates on the statutory elements of covert investigations, addressing directed surveillance, intrusive surveillance, property interference, and surveillance through communications and the data it generates. There is also discussion of the use of covert human intelligence sources, especially the significant moral issues arising from relationship manipulation and privacy intrusion within the sphere of covert investigations.
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